Document Type : Review Paper


tabriz university


education has stepped to an ultra-place and time in 21st century. We have entered to digital and wireless communication century which mobile technologies have changed the process of education and instruction. The application of these mobile technologies for creation of knowledge, attitude and skill in learners is called Mobile Learning. The effectiveness of mobile learning programs requires new communication skills and modern of educational models, this article is written to cover this subject. In this article, first, cover definition of mobile learning, it’s place in distance education, elements, pubic rules, chances and challenges, performance research’s and epitome of future of mobile learning.
In continue article, educational approaches will be interpreted and collaboration learning and teacher-center instruction will be inspected as sub collection of these approaches and at the end a modern educational model that has been derived from before approaches, will be suggested for mobile learning. This model is combination of best specifications of behaviorism and constructivism theories in macro level, and teacher-center instruction and collaboration learning in micro level.


Main Subjects

1. Ahonen, M. (2003) Mobility, Accessibility and Learning. Keynote Speech in Mlearn 2003 Conference. London.
2. Ally, M . (2005) .Multimedia information design for mobile devices. In M. Pagani (Ed.), Encyclopedia of multimedia technology and networking. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc.
3. Baumberger, H. M . (2005) .Cooperative Learning and case study: does the combination improve student perception of problem solving and decision making skill? , Nurse Education Today. pp. 238-247.
4. Brown, Judy; Metcalf, David and Christian, Ria . (2008) .Mobile Learning Update, Elliot Masie’s Learning Consortium Perspectives, :
5. Brown, T. (2003) .The Role of M-Learning in the future of e-learning in Africa, Presented at the 21st ICDE World Conference,2033, retrieved 14, January 2005 from:
6. Elias, Tanya . (2011) .Universal Instructional Design Principles for Mobile Learning, International Review of Research in open and distance elearning. VOL.12.2.
7. Geddes, S.J . (2004) .Mobile learning in the 21st century: benefit to learners. Accessed 27th August 2007 from:
8. GharibiF, MohammadiA . (2009) .Learning through Mobile and education formal and informal, International Conference on Teaching and Learning; Tehran, Iran: 9-10 December.
9. Haerizadeh, Kh. B; Ghasem Khan, S. and Mohammad Hossein, L . (2001) .Learning by Cooperative. Tehran: Ney.
10. Hashemi, Masoud and Ghasemi, Babak . (2011) .Using Mobile Phones in Language Learning/Teaching, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15. pp. 2947–2951 Available online at
11. Heidari, Jamshid . (2010) .Comparative efficacy of cognitive-oriented approaches and the integration of instructional design based on learning and retention of concepts, principles, and problem-solving skills students learn science third base in Asadabad city 2009-2010 years, [Dissertation]. [Tehran]: Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, AllamehTabatabai University
12. Holmes, Bryn; Gardner, John . (2006) .E-Learning (Conceps and practice), SAGE publications, London, Thousand, New Delhi.
13. – learning.2009.
14. Hwang, Gwo-jen; wu,po-han and ruke, hui . (2011) .An interactive concept map approach to supporting mobile learning activities for natural science course, Computers & Education Journal, pp.2272 – 2280, available:
15. JavadiFardZ .(2011) . Comparative Study of Learning in Virtual University, England, Japan and Iran, [Dissertation]. [Tehran]: Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, AllamehTabatabai University.
16. Keegan, D . (2003) .The future of learning: from elearning to mlearning. Hagen: Fernstudienforchung, Germany. E-published version:
17. Kinshuk . (2003) .Adaptive Mobile Learning Technologies. Retrieved February,3,2005, from:
18. Koole, Marguerite; McQuilkin, Janice.L and Ally, Mohamed . (2010) .Mobile Learning in Distance Education: Utility or Futility?,Journal of distance education,VOL.24.PP.82- 59.
19. Kukulska-Hulme, A . (2009) .Will mobile learning change language learning?ReCALL, 21(2), 157-165.
20. Kukulska-Hulme, A. &Traxler, J . (2007) .Design for Mobile and Wireless Technologies .In H. Beetham& R. Sharpe (eds). Rethinking Pedagogy for the Digital Age London: Routledge.
21. Levy, M., & Kennedy, C . (2005) .Learning Italian via mobile SMS. In A. Kukulska-Hulme, & J. Traxler (Eds.), Mobile learning: A handbook for educators and trainers (pp. 76–83).London: Taylor and Francis.
22. Mansouri S, Kaghazi B, KhrmalyN . (2010) .The Study of students Attitude of Gonbad University to Mobile Learning. The first conference of value added mobile services in Iran; 23-24 February.
23. Mason, Robin and Rennie, Frank . (2006) .E-Learning(the key concepts),Routledge, London and New York.
24. MehrMohammadi ,Mahmoud . (2004) .rethinking the concept signified educational revolution in information and communications, Tehran: Ayij.
25. Merjl, Brenda . (2003) .Instructional Design and Learning Theory (translated by JalilShaheriLangarodi), Proceedings of the Human Sciences, Islamic Azad University south. Office VI. Pp. 77-21.
26. Mosaramezani, S . (2010) .The effect of using instructional Method (multimedia and Lecture) on learning, retention and achievement motivation of Arabic lesson, students distance instruction centersin Tehran [Dissertation]. [Tehran]: Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, AllamehTabatabai University.
27. Naismith, L., Lonsdale, P., Vavoula, G. &Sharples, M . (2004) .Literature Review in Mobile Technologies and Learning. Future Lab Report 11. Accessed 27th August 2007 from:
28. Nasr Abadi, H. A and Norouzi, R. A . (2003) .New educational strategies in the Third Millennium, Qom Sama Press.
29. NiliM . (2007) .Educational Technology Conference Proceedings[Introduction]. Tehran: AllamehTabatabai University.
30. Nordin, Norazah; Embi, Mohamed Amin and Yunus, MelorMd . (2011) .Mobile Learning Framework for Lifelong Learning. pp.130 – 138, Retrieved may 18, 2011. available:
31. Pachler, Norbert; Bachmair, Ben and Cook, John . (2010) .Mobile learning (Structure, Agency,Practice),Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg Lodon.
32. Park, Yeon. Jeong . (2011) .A Pedagogical Framework for Mobile Learning: Categorizing Educational Applications of Mobile Technologies into Four Types, International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , Vol. 12.2 ,pp.102 – 79.
33. Pena-Shaff, J. B., & Nicholls, C. (2004). Analyzing student interactions and meaning construction in computer bulletin board discussions. Computers & Education, 42(3), 243–265.
34. Peters, K. (2005). Learning on the move: Mobile technologies in business and education. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
35. Razavi, Abbas . (2011) .Modern Issues in Educational Technology, Ahvaz, Chamran University Press.
36. Rossell-Aguilar, F. (2007) . Top of the pods-in search of podcasting “pedagogy” for language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20(5), 471-492.
37. Ryu, Hok.yong and Parsons, David . (2009) .Innovative Mobile Learning(Techniques and Technologies). Published in the united states of America by Information Science reference.
38. Saif, Ali Akbar . (2007) .New Educational Psychology: Psychology of learning and teach. Tehran: Doran.
39. Sandberg, Jacobijn; Maris, Marinus and Geus, Kaspar de . (2011) . Mobile English learning: An evidence-based study with fifth graders, Computers & Education Journal, pp.1334-1347, available:
40. Shabani, Hasan . (2007) .Skills Education: Teaching Methods and Techniques (Volume I). Tehran: Samt.
41. Sharples, M . (2005) .Towards a theory of mobile learning. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from:
42. Sharples, M . (2006) .Big Issues in Mobile Learning: Report of a Workshop by the Kaleidoscope Network of Excellence Mobile Learning Initiative. Nottingham: Learning Sciences Research Institute.
43. Traxler, J . (2005) . Defining, discussing, and evaluating mobile learning: The moving finger writes and having written... International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(2), 1-12.
44. Tsai, M. J., & Tsai, C. C . (2003) . Information searching strategies in web-based science learning: the role of Internet self-efficacy. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 40(1), 43–50.