Document Type: Review Paper


1 Department of Information Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

2 Department of Computer Engineering, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University

3 Department of Education and International Cooperation, Iran Telecommunication Research Center


The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) provides wireless and mobile communication between vehicles and infrastructure to improve the safety of transportation and make the journey more enjoyable. This system consists of many fixed and mobile nodes (Vehicles, Trains, Vessels, Air planes), Wireless and Wired Telecommunication Technologies to exchange information between mobile nodes or between mobile nodes and fixed stations. The most common transportation tools are cars. Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks as an Application of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks and one of the subsets of Intelligent Transportation System provides wireless Ad-hoc communication between vehicles. VANET is a mobile wireless technology which is designed to improve safety of transportation with exchanging real time data between vehicles and providing different services to the users. It has special characteristics like high mobility and provides a broad range of services to the users, so it has been emerged as one of the research interests in the field of computer and telecommunication networks. In This paper we present different aspects of ITS and VANET to help the researchers to understand the Architecture, Communication Technologies and Applications of these networks.


Main Subjects

[1] An. S. H, Lee. B. H, Shin. D. R, 2011. A survey of Intelligent Transportation System. Third International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Communication Systems and Networks,
[2] Kastell. K. A, 2013. Network planning for Intelligent Transportation Systems Based on Existing Wireless Networks. 5th International Congress on Ultra-Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshop, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
[3] Zheng. K, Zheng. Q, Xiang. W and Zhou. Y, June 2015. Heterogeneous Vehicular Networking: A Survey on Architecture, Challenges, and Solutions. Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, vol. 17, no. 4 pp.2377 – 2396
[4] Gandhi. A, Jadhav. B. T, 2012. Role of Wireless Technology for Vehicular Network. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, vol.3, no.4, pp. 4823-4828, 2012.
[5] Shrivistava. P, Ashai. S, Jaroli. A, Gohil. S, Aug. 2012. Vehicle to Road-Side-Unit Communication Using Wimax. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, vol.2, no.4, pp. 1653-1655.
[6] Al-Sultan. S, Al-Doori. M, Al-Bayatti. A. H and Zedan. H, Jan. 2014. A comprehensive survey on vehicular Ad Hoc network. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 37, pp. 380-392.
[7] Araniti. G, Campolo. C, Condolusi. M, Iera. A, Molinaro. A, May. 2013. LTE for Vehicular Networking: a survey. IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 148-157.
[8] Sahasrabudhe. M. S, Chawla. M, 2014. Survey of Applications based on Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) Framework. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 3937-3942.
[9] WiMAX Forum, Feb. 2009. Network Architecture Stage 2: Architecture Tenets, Reference Model and Reference Points, Part 1- Release 1.0 Version 4.
[10] Etemad. K, Oct. 2008, Overview of Mobile WiMAX Technology and Evolution. IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 31-40, October.
[11] Kim. S, Kim. H, Jin. J, Lee. S, “A new approach for vehicle accident prevention on the highway using Mobile WiMAX”, Wireless Technology Department, Central R&D laboratory, KT 17 Woomyeon-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul, 137-792.
[12] Devarajan. V, Gunasundari. R, Karthik. T, Rajasekaran. V, Feb. 2013, Integration of VANET-WiMAX Network. Journal of Information and Communication Technologies, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 695-700.
[13] Luo. J, Hubaux. J, 2004. “A survey of inter vehicle communication,” School of computer and communication sciences, Laussane, Switzerland.
[14] Olariu. S, Weigle. S, 2009. Vehicular Networks: from theory to practice, 1st ed, Chapman & Hall.
[15] Kenney. J, 2011. Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) standards in the united states. Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 99, no. 7, pp. 1162-1182.
[16] Guo. J, 2006. “Vehicle Safety Communications in DSRC,” 6th U.S Army winter workshop.
[17] Bilstrup. K, Uhleman. E, Storm. E, Bilstrup. U, 2008. Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11p MAC Method for Vehicle to Vehicle Communication. Vehicular Technology conference, (pp. 1-5)
[18] Stibor. L, Zang. Y, Reumerman. H, 2007. Evaluation of communication distance of broadcast messages in vanet using IEEE 802.11p. proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, (pp. 254-257).
[19] IEEE standard for information technology telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area network specific requirements. 2007. part 11: Wireless Lan Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer Specifications.
[20] Moustafa. H, Zhang. Y, 2009. Vehicular networks: techniques, standards, and applications. CRC Press
[21] Vaughan-Nichols. S, 2008. Mobile Wimax: The Next Wireless Battle Ground. Computer, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 16-18, June 2008.
[22] Rahnema. M, 1993. Overview of GSM system and protocol architecture. IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 31, no.4, pp. 92-100.
[23] Jakubiac. J, Koucheryavy. Y, 2008. State of the art and research challenges for vanet. IEEE 5th Consumer Communication and networking conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S.A, 2008.
[24] G. Brasche, B. Walke, “Concepts, services and protocols of the new GSM phase 2+ general packet radio service,” IEEE communication magazine, vol. 35, no.8, pp. 94-104, 1997.
[25] Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); LTE physical layer; General description, 3GPP TR 36.201.
[26] “Intelligent transport systems (ITS); framework for public mobile networks in cooperative ITS (C-ITS),” ETSI Technical Committee Intelligent Transport System, Tech. Rep. 102962, 2012.
[27] Han. C, Dianati. M, R. Tafazolli, Kernchen. R, Chen. X, 2012. Analytical study of the IEEE 802.11p MAC sublayer in vehicular networks. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp .Sys., vol.13, no.2, pp. 873-886.
[28] Vegni. A, Biagi. M, Cusani. R, 2013. Smart Vehicles, Technologies and Main Applications in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks. Vehicular Technologies-Deployment and Applications, L. Gelordano, Ed. InTech.
[29] H. Hartenstein, H. Fuler, M. Mauve, W. Franz, “Simulation Results and Proof-ofoConcept Implementation of the FleetNet Position-Based Router,” Personal Wireless Communications, PWC (2003), Venice, Italy, Sep. 2003, pp. 192197.
[30] IEEE Standard for Information technology Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks specific requirements, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, 2007. [Online].Available:, [Accessed: Dec. 8. 2015]
[31] Mojela. L. S, Booysen. M. J, 2013. On the use of WIMAX and Wi-Fi to provide in-vehicle connectivity and media distribution. IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Cape Town, South Africa, 25-28 (pp. 1353-1358).
[32] Suthaputchakun. C, Zhili. S, Dianati. M, 2012. “Applications of Vehicular Communications for reducing Fuel Consumption and Co2 Emission: The State of the Art and Reseach Challenges,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 108-115.
[33] Katsaros. K, Kernchen. R, Dianati. M, Rieck. D, Zinoviou. C, 2011. Application of vehicular communications for improving the efficiency of traffic in urban areas. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1657-1667.
[34] P. M. d’Orey, M. Ferreira, 2014. “ITS for Sustainable Mobility: A Survey on Applications and Impact Assessment Tools,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 15, no. 2, pp.477-493.
[35] Bi. S, Chen. C, Du. R, Guan. X, 2014. Proper Handover between VANET and Cellular Networks. IEEE 80th Vehicular Technology Conference (pp. 1-5).
[36] Nasser. N, Hasswa. A and Hassanein. H, 2006, Handoffs in fourth-generation multi-network environment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.44, no.10, pp. 96-103.
[37] Lee. S, Seriram. K, Kim. K, Kim. Y, and Golmie. N, 2009, Vertical Handoff decision algorithms for providing optimized performance in heterogeneous wireless networks IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 865-881.
[38] Raya. M, Papadimitratos. P, Hubaux. J, Oct. 2006, Securing Vehicular Communications. IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 13.
[39] Parno. B and Perrig. A, 2005, Challenges in securing Vehicular Networks. Proc. Of Hotnets-IV.
[40] Aad. I, Hubaux. J, Knightly. E, Aug. 2008, Impact of Denial of Service Attacks on Ad-Hoc Networks. Networking IEEE/ACM Transactions on Volume 16.
[41] Raya. M, Hubaux. J, 2005. The Security of VANETs. Proceeding of the 2nd ACM International Workshop on Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks.
[42] Raya. M, Hubaux. J, 2005. The Security of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks. Proc. Of the 3rd ACM workshop on security of ad-hoc and sensor networks.
[43] Rahman. S, Falaki. H, Security and Privacy for DSRC-based Automotive Collision Reporting.
[44] Douceur. J, 2003. The Sybil Attack. First International Workshop on peer-to-peer Systems. Springer, First Ed. USA.