Document Type: Original Research Paper

Author

School of Mechanical Engineering,University of Tehran,Tehran,Iran

Abstract

The studies in aerial vehicles modeling and control have been increased rapidly recently. In this paper , a coordination of two types of heterogeneous robots , namely unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) is considered. In this paper the UAV plays the role of a virtual leader for the UGVs. The system consists of a vision- based target detection algorithm that uses the color and image moment of a given target. The modeling of the vertical take off and landing vehicle will be described by using Euler - Newton equations. All of flight controller commands are directly generated based on the offset of the target from the image frame. The image processing and intelligent control algorithms such a Kalman filter and so on have been implemented on a latest computer. Matlab Simulink software has been used to test, analyze and compare the performance of the controllers in simulations .

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1]L. Consolini, F. Morbidi, D. Prattichizzo, and M. Tosques, "Stabilization of a hierarchical formation of unicycle robots with velocity and curvature constraints," IEEE Transactions On Robotics, vol. 25, no. 5, (2009), 1l76-1184.

[2]A. Gessow and G. Myers, Aerodynamics of the helicopter, Fredrick Ungar Publishing Co, New York, 1967.

[3]J. G. Leishman, Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

[4]M. J. Hirschberg, The American Helicopter: An overview of Helicopter Developments in America 1908-1999, 2000.

[5]P. Castillo, R. Lozano, and A. E. Dzul, Modeling and Control of Mini-flying Machines, Advances in Industrial Control Series, ISSN 1430-9491, Springer, 2005.

[6]H. Y. Chao, Y. C. Cao, and Y. Q. Chen, “Autopilots for small unmanned aerial vehicles: a survey,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 8, no. 1, (2010), 36-44.

[7]D. Lee, I. Kaminer, V. Dobrokhodov, and K. Jones, “Autonomous feature following for visual surveillance using a small unmanned aerial vehicle with gimbaled camera system,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 8, no. 5, (2010), 957-966.

[8]D. Han, J. Kim, C. Min, S. Jo, J. Kim, and D. Lee, “Development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system with waypoint tracking and vision-based reconnaissance,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 8, no. 5, (2010), 1091-1099.

[9]T. Schmitt, R. Hanek, S. B. Michael Beetz, and B. Radig, “Cooperative probabilistic state estimation for vision-based autonomous mobile robots,” IEEE Transactions on robotics and automation, vol. 18, no. 5, (2002), 670–684.

[10]I. Hwang, H. B. K. Roy, and C. Tomlin, “A distributed multipletarget identity management algorithm in sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the 43rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2010.

[11]L. Hong, N. Cui, M. T. Pronobis, and S. Scott, “Simultaneous ground moving target tracking and identification using q wavelets features from hrr data,” Information Science, vol. 162, (2004), 249–274.

[12]V. K. Chitrakaran, D. M. Dawson, W. E. Dixon, and J. Chen, “Identification of a moving objects velocity with a fixed camera,” Automatica, vol. 41, no. 3, (2005), 553–562.

[13]A. P. Aguiar and J. P. Hespanha, “Minimum-energy state estimation for systems with perspective outputs,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 51, no. 2, (2006), 226–241.

[14]S. Martinez and F. Bullo, “Optimal sensor placement and motion coordination for target tracking,” Automatica, vol. 42, no. 4, (2006), 661–668.

[15]F. Khakpur and G. Ardeshir, “USING A NOVEL CONCEPT OF POTENTIAL PIXEL ENERGY FOR OBJECT TRACKING,” International Journal of Engineering Transactions A: Basics, vol. 27, no. 7, (2014), 1023-1032.

[16]F. Rafi, S. Khan, K. Shafiq, and M. Shah, “Autonomous target following by unmanned aerial vehicles,” in Proceedings, May 2006.

[17]R. A. and R. T. Rysdyk, “Uav coordination for autonomous target tracking,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control, 2006.

[18]J. Lee, R. Huang, A. Vaughn, X. Xiao, and J. K. Hedrick, “Strategies of path-planning for a uav to track a ground vehicle,” in Proceedings of the 2nd annual Autonomous Intelligent Networks and Systems Conference, Menlo Park, CA, June 2003.

[19]Y. Bar-Shalom and T. E. Fortmann, Tracking and Data Association. MA: Academic Press, Boston, 1988.

[20]B. K. Ghosh and E. P. Loucks, “A realization theory for perspective systems with application to parameter estimation problems in machine vision,” in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 41, (1996), 1706-1722.

[21]K. Hashimoto and T. Noritsugu, “Observer-based control for visual servoing,” in Proc. 13th IFAC World Congress, San Francisco, California, (1996), 453–458.

[22]A. J. Koivo and N. Houshangi, “Real-time vision feed- back for servoing robotic manipulator with self-tuning controller,” in IEEE Transactions Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 21, (1991), 134–142.

[23]P. K. Allen, A. Timcenko, B. Yoshimi, and P. Michelman, “Trajectory filtering and prediction for automated tracking and grasping of a moving object,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, (1992),  1850–1856.

[24]H. Shariat and K. Price, “Motion estimation with more than two frames,” in IEEE Transactions on PAMI, vol. 12, (1990), 417– 434.

[25]C. Teuliere, L. Eck, and E. Marchand, “Chasing a moving target from a flying uav,” in Int. Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS, San Francisco, CA, 25-30 Sept., (2011), 4929 – 4934.

[26]F. Heintz, P. Rudol, and P. Doherty, “From images to traffic behavior - a uav tracking and monitoring application,” in 10th International Conference on Information Fusion, 9-12 July, 2007.

[27]J. Gomez-Balderas, S. Salazar, J. Guerrero, and R. Lozano, “Vision based autonomous hover of a mini-rotorcraft,” in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Symposium, Dubai, Jun, 2010.

[28]J. Gomez-Balderas, P. Castillo, J. Guerrero, and R. Lozano, “Vision based tracking for a quadrotor using vanishing points,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, vol. 65, no. 1-4, (2012) 361–371.

[29]S. S. Ponda, R. M. Kolacinski, and E. Frazzoli, “Trajectory optimization for target localization using small unmanned aerial vehicles,” in AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 10-13 August, 2009.

[30]H. Voos, “Nonlinear Control of a Quadrotor Micro-UAV Using Feedback-Linearization,” IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics, (2009), 1-6.

 

[1]      L. Consolini, F. Morbidi, D. Prattichizzo, and M. Tosques, "Stabilization of a hierarchical formation of unicycle robots with velocity and curvature constraints," IEEE Transactions On Robotics, vol. 25, no. 5, (2009), 1l76-1184.

[2]      A. Gessow and G. Myers, Aerodynamics of the helicopter, Fredrick Ungar Publishing Co, New York, 1967.

[3]      J. G. Leishman, Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

[4]      M. J. Hirschberg, The American Helicopter: An overview of Helicopter Developments in America 1908-1999, 2000.

[5]      P. Castillo, R. Lozano, and A. E. Dzul, Modeling and Control of Mini-flying Machines, Advances in Industrial Control Series, ISSN 1430-9491, Springer, 2005.

[6]      H. Y. Chao, Y. C. Cao, and Y. Q. Chen, “Autopilots for small unmanned aerial vehicles: a survey,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 8, no. 1, (2010), 36-44.

[7]      D. Lee, I. Kaminer, V. Dobrokhodov, and K. Jones, “Autonomous feature following for visual surveillance using a small unmanned aerial vehicle with gimbaled camera system,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 8, no. 5, (2010), 957-966.

[8]      D. Han, J. Kim, C. Min, S. Jo, J. Kim, and D. Lee, “Development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system with waypoint tracking and vision-based reconnaissance,” International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 8, no. 5, (2010), 1091-1099.

[9]      T. Schmitt, R. Hanek, S. B. Michael Beetz, and B. Radig, “Cooperative probabilistic state estimation for vision-based autonomous mobile robots,” IEEE Transactions on robotics and automation, vol. 18, no. 5, (2002), 670–684.

[10]   I. Hwang, H. B. K. Roy, and C. Tomlin, “A distributed multipletarget identity management algorithm in sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the 43rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2010.

[11]   L. Hong, N. Cui, M. T. Pronobis, and S. Scott, “Simultaneous ground moving target tracking and identification using q wavelets features from hrr data,” Information Science, vol. 162, (2004), 249–274.

[12]   V. K. Chitrakaran, D. M. Dawson, W. E. Dixon, and J. Chen, “Identification of a moving objects velocity with a fixed camera,” Automatica, vol. 41, no. 3, (2005), 553–562.

[13]   A. P. Aguiar and J. P. Hespanha, “Minimum-energy state estimation for systems with perspective outputs,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 51, no. 2, (2006), 226–241.

[14]   S. Martinez and F. Bullo, “Optimal sensor placement and motion coordination for target tracking,” Automatica, vol. 42, no. 4, (2006), 661–668.

[15]   F. Khakpur and G. Ardeshir, “USING A NOVEL CONCEPT OF POTENTIAL PIXEL ENERGY FOR OBJECT TRACKING,” International Journal of Engineering Transactions A: Basics, vol. 27, no. 7, (2014), 1023-1032.

[16]   F. Rafi, S. Khan, K. Shafiq, and M. Shah, “Autonomous target following by unmanned aerial vehicles,” in Proceedings, May 2006.

[17]   R. A. and R. T. Rysdyk, “Uav coordination for autonomous target tracking,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control, 2006.

[18]   J. Lee, R. Huang, A. Vaughn, X. Xiao, and J. K. Hedrick, “Strategies of path-planning for a uav to track a ground vehicle,” in Proceedings of the 2nd annual Autonomous Intelligent Networks and Systems Conference, Menlo Park, CA, June 2003.

[19]   Y. Bar-Shalom and T. E. Fortmann, Tracking and Data Association. MA: Academic Press, Boston, 1988.

[20]   B. K. Ghosh and E. P. Loucks, “A realization theory for perspective systems with application to parameter estimation problems in machine vision,” in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 41, (1996), 1706-1722.

[21]   K. Hashimoto and T. Noritsugu, “Observer-based control for visual servoing,” in Proc. 13th IFAC World Congress, San Francisco, California, (1996), 453–458.

[22]   A. J. Koivo and N. Houshangi, “Real-time vision feed- back for servoing robotic manipulator with self-tuning controller,” in IEEE Transactions Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 21, (1991), 134–142.

[23]   P. K. Allen, A. Timcenko, B. Yoshimi, and P. Michelman, “Trajectory filtering and prediction for automated tracking and grasping of a moving object,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, (1992),  1850–1856.

[24]   H. Shariat and K. Price, “Motion estimation with more than two frames,” in IEEE Transactions on PAMI, vol. 12, (1990), 417– 434.

[25]   C. Teuliere, L. Eck, and E. Marchand, “Chasing a moving target from a flying uav,” in Int. Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS, San Francisco, CA, 25-30 Sept., (2011), 4929 – 4934.

[26]   F. Heintz, P. Rudol, and P. Doherty, “From images to traffic behavior - a uav tracking and monitoring application,” in 10th International Conference on Information Fusion, 9-12 July, 2007.

[27]   J. Gomez-Balderas, S. Salazar, J. Guerrero, and R. Lozano, “Vision based autonomous hover of a mini-rotorcraft,” in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Symposium, Dubai, Jun, 2010.

[28]   J. Gomez-Balderas, P. Castillo, J. Guerrero, and R. Lozano, “Vision based tracking for a quadrotor using vanishing points,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, vol. 65, no. 1-4, (2012) 361–371.

[29]   S. S. Ponda, R. M. Kolacinski, and E. Frazzoli, “Trajectory optimization for target localization using small unmanned aerial vehicles,” in AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 10-13 August, 2009.

[30]   H. Voos, “Nonlinear Control of a Quadrotor Micro-UAV Using Feedback-Linearization,” IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics, (2009), 1-6.