Document Type: Original Research Paper


Faculty of Computer and Information Technology Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran


Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is one of the important nano-level technologies for implementation of both combinational and sequential systems. QCA have the potential to achieve low power dissipation and operate high speed at THZ frequencies. However large probability of occurrence fabrication defects in QCA, is a fundamental challenge to use this emerging technology. Because of these various defects, it is necessary to obtain exhaustive recognition about these defects. In this paper a complete survey of different QCA faults are presented first. Then some techniques to improve fault tolerance in QCA circuits explained. The effects of missing cell as an important fault on XOR gate that is one of important basic building block in QCA technology is then discussed by exhaustive simulations. Improvement technique is then applied to these XOR structures and then structures are resimulated to measure their fault tolerance improvement due to using these fault tolerance technique. The result show that different QCA XOR gates have different sensitivity against this fault. After using improvement technique, the tolerance of XOR gates have been increased, furthermore in terms of sensitivity against this defect XORs show similar behavior that indicate the effectiveness of improvement have been made.


Main Subjects

[1] G. E. Moore, "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits, Reprinted from Electronics, volume 38, number 8, April 19, 1965, pp. 114 ff."Solid-State Circuits Newsletter, IEEE 11.5 (2006): 33-35.
[2] Mehdi Baradaran Tahoori, Mariam Momenzadeh, Jing Huang, Fabrizio Lombardi, "Defects and Faults in Quantum Cellular Automata at Nano Scale", Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 02115, Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE VLSI Test Symposium (VTS 2004)
[3] Craig S Lent, P Douglas Tougaw, Wolfgang Porod and Gary H Bernstein, "Quantum cellular automata", Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA, Received 1 August 1992, accepted for publication 24 December 1992
[4] Kyosun KIM, Member, Kaijie WU, and Ramesh KARRI, "Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Design Guideline", 2006 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, IEICE TRANS. FUNDAMENTALS, VOL.E89–A, NO.6 JUNE 2006
[5] Weiqiang Liu, Liang Lu and M´aire O’Neill Earl E. Swartzlander Jr, "Design Rules for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata", 2011 IEEE
[6] K. Navi, S.Sayedsalehi, R.Farazkish, M.Rahimi Azghadi, Five-input majority gate, a new device for quantum-dot cellular automata ,J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 7(2010)1546–1553.
[7] X.Yang,L.Cai,X.Zhaho,N.Zhang, Design and simulation of sequential circuits in quantum-dot cellular automata: falling edge-triggered flip-flop and counter study, Microelectron.J.41(2010)56–63 (Elsevier).
[8] M. Lieberman, S. Chellamma, B. Varughese, Y. Wang, C.S. Lent, G.H. Bernstein, G. Snider and F. Peiris, “Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata at a Molecular Scale”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 960, pp. 225-239, 2002.
[9] MICHAEL CROCKER, MICHAEL NIEMIER, X. SHARON HU, and MARYA LIEBERMAN, "Molecular QCA Design with Chemically Reasonable Constraints", ACMJournal on EmergingTechnologies in Computing Systems,Vol. 4, No. 2,Article 9, Publication date: April 2008
[10] ] JIANWEI DAI and LEI WANG University of Connecticut and FABRIZIO LOMBARDI Northeastern University, "An Information-Theoretic Analysis of Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata for Defect Tolerance", ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems, Vol. 6, No. 3, Article 9, Pub. date: August 2010.
[11] A. Orlov, A. Imre, G. Csaba, L. Ji, W. Porod, and G. H. Bernstein, "Magnetic Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata: Recent Developments and Prospects," Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics Vol.3, 1–14, 2008
[12] ] V. Vankamamidi, M.Ottavi, F.Lombardi,Two-dimensional schemes for clocking/timing of QCA circuits, IEEE Trans. Comput.Aided Des. Integr.Circuits Syst. 27(2008)34–44.
[13] Kunal Das, Debashis De, "QCA Defect and Fault Analysis of Diverse Nanostructure for Implementing Logic Gate", International J. of Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 2010
[14] Mojdeh Mahdavi, Mohammad Amin Amiri, Sattar Mirzakuchaki, and Mohammad Naser Moghaddasi, "Single Electron Fault Modeling in QCA Inverter Gate", Canadian Journal on electrical & Electronics Engineering Vol. 1, No. 1, February 2010
[15] M. Mahdavi, S. Mirzakuchaki, M.N. Moghaddasi, M.A. Amiri, "Single electron fault modelling in quantum binary wire," Micro & Nano Letters, 2011, Vol. 6, Iss. 2, pp. 75–77
[16] P. D. Tougaw and C. S. Lent, “Effect of stray charge on quantum cellular automata,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 4373–4375, 1995.
[17] Mehdi Askari and Maryam Taghizadeh and Khossro Fardad, "Digital Design Using Quantum-Dot Cellular automata (A Nanotechnology Method)", 1Department of computer and Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Omeidyeh, Iran 2Department of computer, Islamic Azad University, Behbahan, Iran, Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering 2008
[18] J. Huang, M.Momenzadeh, L. Schiano and F. Lombardi, “Simulation-based Design of Modular QCA Circuits”, Proc. IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, PaperWE-P7-1, IEEE CD-ROM 05TH8816C, Nagoya, 2005.
[19] T. Cole, J.C. Lusth, "Review Quantum-dot cellular automata, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science", Boise State University, Boise ID 83725, USA, 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd
[20] Razieh Farazkish, "A new quantum-dot cellular automata fault tolerant five-input majority gate", J Nanopart Res (2014)
[21] J. Huang, M. Momenzadeh, F. Lombardi, " Analysis of missing and additional cell defects in sequential quantum-dot cellular automata," INTEGRATION, the VLSI journal 40 (2007) 503–515.
[22] Xiaokuo Yang, Li Cai, Shuzhao Wang, Zhuo Wang, and Chaowen Feng, "Reliability and Performance Evaluation of QCA Devices With Rotation Cell Defect", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 11, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2012
[23] Mariam Momenzadeh, Jing Huang, Mehdi B. Tahoori, and Fabrizio Lombardi, "Characterization, Test, and Logic Synthesis of And-Or-Inverter (AOI) Gate Design for QCA Implementation", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 24, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2005
[24] Faizal Karim, Marco Ottavi, Hamidreza Hashempour, Vamsi Vankamamidi, Konard Walus, Andre ivanov, Fabrizio Lombardi, "Modeling and Evaluating Errors Due to Random Clock Shifts in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Circuits," Journal of Electronic Testing, February 2009, Volume 25, Issue 1
[25] M. Janez, P. Pecar, and M. Mraz, “Layout design of manufacturable quantum-dot cellular automata,” Microelectronics Journal, vol. 43, pp. 501–513, 2012.
[26] S. Perri, and P. Corsonello, “New Methodology for the Design of Efficient Binary Addition Circuits in QCA,” Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on, 11(6), 1192-1200. 2012.
[27] Arman Roohi, RonaldF.DeMara, Navid Khoshavi, "Design and evaluation of an ultra area-efficient fault-tolerant QCA full adder," Microelectronics Journal 46 (2015) 531–542.
[28] K. Walus, T. Dysart, G. Jullien, and R. Budiman, “QCADesigner: A rapid design and simulation tool for quantum-dot cellular automata,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 3, pp. 26–31, 2004.
[29] N. Shah, F. Khanday, andJ. Iqbal,“Quantum-dot cellular automata (qca) design of multi-function reversible logic gate,” Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering,2012.
[30] K. Suresh, and G.Bahniman "Ripple Carry Adder Using Two XOR Gates in QCA." Applied Mechanics and Materials 467, 531-535. 2014.
[31] A. Roohi, H. Khademolhosseini,S. Sayedsalehi, and K.Navi, "A Novel Architecture for Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Multiplexer." IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues 8.6: 55-60. 2011.
[32] M. Mustafa, and M. Beigh, "Design and implementation of quantum cellular automata based novel parity generator and checker circuits with minimum complexity and cell count." Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics 51 60-66, 2013.
[33] H. R. Mahdiani, A. R. Hejazi, M. Poorhoseini " A Fault-Tolerant and Efficient XOR Structure for Modular Design of Complex QCA Circuits" submitted to internatonal journal of circuit theory and applications.